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Male Infertility

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Sperm Disorders

The inability of male sperm to fertilise an egg is called male infertility. As a result, it becomes difficult to get pregnant. There are a number of causes of male infertility, but the most common causes of male infertility are sperm-related factors.


Most men with varicoceles do not have fertility problems. However, individuals with varicoceles have a higher rate of infertility than those without varicoceles. This difference may be due to the varicocele, which prevents the body from producing and storing sperm.

Genetic Disorders Infertility

Infertility linked with genetic disorders is usually due to the production of abnormal sperms or lack of sperms. The genetic disorders that affect male fertility are Kleinfelter Syndrome, Cystic Fibrosis Gene Mutation, Y chromosome microdeletion, and other Chromosomal Abnormalities.

Retrograde Ejaculation

Retrograde Ejaculation is otherwise known as a dry orgasm. Although some men with retrograde ejaculation still ejaculate at some point, they might experience less fluid. In a few men, Retrograde ejaculation can lead to infertility. There is a minimal possibility of sperm fertilising an egg when very little or no ejaculate leaves the body

Sperm Transport Issues

Men’s testicles produce adequate sperm; however, infertility may result if there is a problem with sperm transport that stops the sperm from leaving the testes and entering the ejaculate in the urethra or penis. The parts of the male genital tract where the obstructions occur are Epididymis, Vas deferens, and Ejaculatory duct.

Stress & Infertility

When you are stressed, the quality of your sperm may be compromised, resulting in fewer sperm each time you ejaculate.They may not move as well, resulting in poor motility. It could be harder for couples to get pregnant if stress affects the male patient’s sperm quality.

Undescended Testicles

Undescended testicles, also referred to as cryptorchidism, is a condition where one or both testicles do not naturally descend into the scrotum. Due to poor testicular development or an increase in temperature when the testicle is outside of the scrotum, undescended testicles may affect fertility. Heat has an adverse effect on sperm production and in consequence, this becomes an issue.

Erectile Dysfunction

A male patient’s fertility is not directly influenced by his erectile dysfunction problems. However, it does cause roadblocks in a couple’s desire to become pregnant.

Hormonal Imbalance

In order for the male reproductive system to work properly, hormones are essential. The effectiveness of this system depends on the right hormone balance. Around 10% of all male factor infertility cases are caused by hormonal imbalances which can present themselves in a variety of ways, from poor sperm concentration to sexual dysfunction. In general, hormone abnormalities can be identified and treated.

Celiac Disease and Male Infertility

The small intestine becomes very sensitive when the male patient suffers from celiac disease- this is because of gluten. The patient’s digestive tract would suffer problems over time due to the overactive immune system. In addition to this, many studies have revealed a relationship between celiac disease and infertility, thus leading to the inference that the former does cause the latter.

Medications and Male Infertility

The consumption of many medications may have an effect on a male patient’s fertility. Further, if the patient indulges in the usage of banned medication, the effects can be adverse. These must be avoided at every turn. Some of the drugs that cause infertility are Testosterone, Anabolic steroids, Alcohol, Tobacco, Marijuana, Narcotics, 5-Alpha-reductase inhibitors, Alpha-blockers, Ketoconazole, and more.

Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility

Erectile dysfunction, is one of the most prevalent and well known of the world’s fertility issues. When a male patient is affected by it, his sexual organ does not become or stay firm during sexual intercourse. High blood pressure, diabetes, blood vessel diseases, surgery that affects a man’s genitals or bladder, nerve problems or injury, hormonal problems, and depression are the main causes of erectile dysfunction.

Immunological Infertility

An estimated 5% of sterility cases are thought to be immunological in nature and associated with the existence of anti-sperm antibodies in either men or women. Because of the functions that macrophages and polynuclear neutrophils play in the initial and second stages of the spermatozoa’s demise, respectively, the production is higher in men than in women.

Cancer and Fertility

It is possible for cancer and related treatments to cause long-term damage to a male patient’s fertility. Common cancer treatments such as radiation therapy, alkylating chemotherapy, and surgery to treat prostate or bladder cancer can affect male patient’s fertility drastically. Ejaculatory problems can occur after surgery for testicular cancer or colon cancer in men.